Playing at left-back Convey set up his country's first goal after just five minutes, crossing for Brian Ching to head home.
The USA then added a second on the way to securing a comfortable victory.
El Salvador, who were reduced to ten men in the first half, rarely threatened the US goal, protected by Manchester United shotstopper Tim Howard.
USA coach Bruce Arena was pleased with Convey's performance in an unusual left-back position, but admitted El Salvador hardly tested his defensive capabilities.
"We knew going into this game that our left back was really going to play as a left-sided midfielder, that is obviously a spot Bobby can play," said Arena, speaking to US Soccer.
"If it is a tough game, where we are just defending for 90 minutes, that is when we are really going to tell where he is as a left back."
"Today we knew that it wasn't really the kind of game where he was going to be tested a whole lot on the defensive end of the field, so I think he did pretty well going forward.
"He got a good ball in there for Brian (Ching) to stick in the back of the net and was obviously a big part of the game."
Convey missed out on playing in the USA's previous World Cup qualifier against Jamaica as his national coaches wanted to give him time to settle in at the Madejski Stadium following his mega-money transfer from DC United.